Dry Processing Technologies for Large Area Electronics


The Dry Processing Short Course is delivered by the Centre for Process Innovation (CPI). It covers the key processing techniques required for large area electronic device manufacture, including vacuum deposition, photolithography, laser ablation and wet and dry etching. In each case the advantages, disadvantages and technological challenges of each technique will be covered, along with issues arising in scale up for manufacture.


12:30 – 13:30 Registration
13:30 Course begins
Dry Processing (Thin Film Fabrication and Patterning)

Vacuum Deposition
Dr Andrew Cook, CPI

  • Physical vapour deposition
  • Chemical vapour deposition
  • Description of evaporation process
  • Description of sputtering process
  • Comparison of evaporation vs sputtering
  • PVD chamber design
    • Requirements for a process chamber
    • Discussion on vacuum pumps types
    • Discussion on power supplies
  • PVD process conditions
    • Pressure, time & power vs deposition rate & thickness
    • Magnetron sputtering
    • Metal vs reactive sputtering
    • Target types
  • Description of ALD process
    • ALD cycle
    • Temporal vs spatial ALD
    • Current tool types

Photolithography Processes
John McLean, CPI

  • Photo processes
    • Positive and negative resists
    • Lift off resists
    • Image reversal resists
    • Cured dielectrics
    • Hard mask process
    • UV-NIL
  • Photo tool set
    • Spin Coating
    • Alignment
    • Maskless photolithography
    • Developing photoresist
  • Common issue considerations
    • Resist adhesion
    • Reflectivity of the material or underlying material
    • The planarity of the material
    • Etch characteristics of the material
    • Resist removal method
    • Thermal stability of sublayers and deposited material
    • Exposure factors

14:50 - 15:20 Coffee break
Laser Processing for Ablation and Patterning
John McLean, CPI
Etching Processes
Mike Clausen, CPI

  • Differences between wet and dry etching
  • Isotropic versus anisotropic
  • Typical wet etch chemistries
  • Typical wet etch problems
  • Plasma etch fundamentals
  • Selectivity, etch rate, uniformity
  • Steps in a plasma etch process
  • Typical plasma chemistries

Mike Clausen, CPI

  • Brief overview of the CPI integration facility
  • Case studies

17:00 Course ends

Dr Andrew Cook, Senior Scientist
Dr Andrew Cook gained his PhD in physical organic chemistry. He has worked in the fields of polymer synthesis and industrial scale roll to roll vacuum coating technologies (primarily sputtering, thermal evaporation and atomic layer deposition). Andrew’s background is in synthetic organic and organometallic chemistry from mg to kg scale, and is very competent with all modern analytical measuring and identification techniques. Andrew has a proven publication track record and has worked across multi collaborative research & development projects funded by IUK and the European Union, most notably Fabrigen, HiBPE and R2R CIGS, which have directly investigated the scaling up of technologies to manufacturing readiness levels.


John McLean, Process Engineering Team Leader
John McLean is the Process Engineering Team Leader within CPI Electronics. He started his working life in 1986 with National Semiconductor and has mainly worked within the semiconductor industry since. He has worked for a number of large companies like Siemens and Atmel as well as smaller companies in his capacity as a process engineer. For the last seven years he has been at CPI as part of the process engineering team. John has primarily been involved in photolithography and patterning, from contact aligners to deep UV scanners. John has also worked in defect engineering and metrology.


Mike Clausen, Head of Technology
Mike Clausen is the Head of Technology within CPI’s Electronics unit. He is responsible for providing technical leadership, developing technologies so that they can be translated to innovative products capable of commercialization in the future. Previously, he was responsible for developing the knowledge base and technology assets for the optoelectronics sector, in addition to delivering technology programmes from concept through to innovation. Mike has 25 years experience within the electronics field working within research and development, mass production and customer service environments. He has worked for medium size British companies and major international blue chip organisations such as Fujitsu Microelectronics, NXP, Filtronic Compound Semiconductors and RFMD. His knowledge base spans operations management, process engineering and integration, technology development, yield enhancement and project management.

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